With repeat exposure, the condition worsens. Anyone can develop contact dermatitis. People working in certain professions have a higher risk. In fact, this is so common that your doctor may tell you that you have occupational dermatitis. Nurses and beauticians often develop dry, cracked skin on their palms and fingers. Wearing latex gloves frequently throughout the day causes some people to develop an allergy to latex.
A common sign of this allergy is itchy, inflamed hands.
Contact Dermatitis – Epidemiological Study
Your environment also plays a role. Extreme heat or cold, high humidity, and very dry air make the skin more vulnerable. When the skin is irritated, a person develops irritant contact dermatitis. Anyone can develop this type of contact dermatitis. It happens when something damages the outer layers of skin.
Almost any chemical, including water, can damage the skin with enough contact.
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Toxic substances like fiberglass and turpentine quickly damage the skin. Many people develop irritant contact dermatitis when they work with hair dyes, solvents, oils, paints, varnishes, foods, or metalworking fluids. An allergic reaction causes allergic contact dermatitis. People develop allergic reactions to many substances. Some of the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis are:. Sometimes a trigger is needed for an allergic reaction to occur.
Allergic contact dermatitis may only occur when the skin:. More than 3, substances can cause allergic contact dermatitis. These substances include preservatives in cosmetics, antibiotics applied to the skin, animal dander, dyes in clothing and shoes, and rubber. With thousands of causes, successfully treating this skin condition can take a bit of detective work.
Dermatologists frequently treat this condition. In fact, this is one of the most common reasons to see a dermatologist. Cohen DE et al. February ; New Orleans. Kockentiet B, Adams BB. Saary J, Qureshi R. Zug KA et al. March ; San Francisco. Finding the cause can require a bit of detective work.
Your dermatologist may ask you questions about your work, free time, pets, and skin care products. Be sure to tell your dermatologist about all cosmetics you use. If you or a close family member uses a skin lightener, be sure to mention this, too. If your dermatologist suspects that you have an allergy, patch testing may be recommended. This offers patients a safe and effective way to find out if your skin has developed an allergic reaction to anything.
To find out if the allergen is causing your rash, you will need to avoid that substance. For example, if the test shows that you have a nickel allergy, you may need to:. Image used with permission of Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology: Hamann CR, Boonchai W. Katta R, Schlichte M. Nguyen JC, Chesnut G, et al.
Sometimes you can get rid of a rash yourself. The cause is often nickel, a metal found in many pieces of jewelry. A wedding ring can cause this problem. In fact, this rash is so common that it has a name, wedding-ring dermatitis. If this happens, ask your dermatologist for tips to prevent getting a rash from your wedding ring. Tips for treating and preventing. Metals in musical instruments, such as nickel, cobalt, palladium, silver, and gold, can cause a rash.
So too can cane reeds and exotic woods. Stains, glues, and varnishes also cause contact dermatitis. Sometimes we can find one cause but miss others. For example, many people develop an allergy to nickel. This metal is so common that it may be in your wedding ring and dozens of products that you regularly use. A dermatologist can help you find out if you have any allergies. If you have an allergy, your dermatologist can create a plan to help you avoid things that cause your rash.
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Many dermatologists use databases that can tell them what products you should avoid if you have an allergy and what products you can use. This alone could save you lots of time and money. July ; San Diego. Livingood Award and Lectureship Marion B. Your body's largest organ About hair: Not just on your head About nails: More important than you think Questions lots of kids ask about their skin, hair, and nails. Amazing facts about your skin, hair, and nails How do animals protect their skin Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a dermatologist Why see a board-certified dermatologist?
Many health care workers develop an allergy to latex, as did this nurse. Her rash is due to touching her face while wearing latex gloves. Overview Almost everyone gets this type of eczema at least once. Allergic contact dermatitis Some people have an allergic skin reaction.
You have had this type of contact dermatitis if you had a rash caused by: It develops when something irritates the skin. With enough contact, most things will irritate our skin. A person diagnosed with any of the following has irritant contact dermatitis: Signs and symptoms When to seek immediate medical care A few people develop a severe allergic reaction known as anaphylaxis an-uh-fuh-lax-sis. A person may have: Allergic contact dermatitis This skin condition occurs when you have an allergic reaction to something that comes in contact with your skin. When signs and symptoms appear, you may have: The signs and symptoms differ for mild and strong irritants.
With repeat exposure, patches of itchy, red, swollen, and scaly skin develop. By this time, each time something that can irritate the skin touches the affected skin, you may feel stinging and burning right away. If exposure continues, the skin may crack, get scaly, and become excessive dry. Sores and blisters may develop and erupt, causing crusts and scales. On contact or within a few hours, the skin can: The rash can make many daily activities painful, especially when the rash forms on the hands. The rash can cause: Missed work days Inability to enjoy leisure activities Loss of sleep.
Contact dermatitis Contact dermatitis: Who gets and causes Who gets contact dermatitis? People who are more likely to get occupational dermatitis include: You also have a greater risk of developing contact dermatitis if you have or had one of these medical conditions: What causes contact dermatitis?
Definition of contact dermatitis
A person develops contact dermatitis when something that touches the skin does one of the following: Some of the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis are: Poison ivy Nickel used in cell phones, jewelry, eyeglass frames, zippers, belt buckles Nail cosmetics: Nail polish, adhesives Fragrances Latex Cement Many people touch a substance for years before an allergy develops.
Allergic contact dermatitis may only occur when the skin: Diagnosis and treatment How dermatologists diagnose contact dermatitis To diagnose this common skin condition, dermatologists: Examine your skin, paying close attention to the rash.
Ask about current and past health issues. Ask questions to help them determine what is causing the rash. What happens during patch testing? If patch testing is recommended, the following will happen: Patches containing small amounts of substances to which you may be allergic will be applied to your skin, usually on your back.
Guideline contact dermatitis
The repartition of cases of contact dermatitis among urban and rural areas, revealed a distribution of 1. Dynamics of hospitalizations for contact dermatitis, depending on the time of the year, the group of the majority of cases reported during the spring The vast majority of cases investigated by the contact dermatitis has consisted of a single factor from etiological point of presence cases , but there have been 79 cases in which the disease was triggered by 2 factors and 37 cases with 3 or more etiological factors. From plants, the most frequent ones have a well-established medicinal use: Disinfectants and topical drugs rank two in the etiology of contact dermatitis, and notably are: From the perspective of the clinical and biological evolution the vast cases of contact dermatitis were acute Therapy applied to the hospitalized patients was based on topical drugs The achieved study reflects a frequency of contact dermatitis cases of 3.
This incidence corresponds to the data published in the literature, in which it is estimated that the prevalence varies between 1. Regarding the area of origin it is found a relatively constant rate of incidence, both in urban and rural areas urban — rural: These values of incidence are explained by the frequency of such diseases among the population irrespective of the origin. Concerning the studied cases of contact dermatitis depending on sex, it was found more frequently at females A series of studies conducted in European countries have revealed the following results: These results indicate that the rate of incidence of the disorders is higher at females 1 , 3.
Although the data obtained in a variety of studies could not established an unanimous conclusion, clinical practice shows that females are most affected. The distribution of cases of contact dermatitis by age groups indicates that the most affected by the condition were the age groups ranging from 46 to 74 years, patients over 45 years representing In United States the prevalence seems to increase with age, and after a series of publications edited in Sweden, the Netherlands and Norway, the rate of incidence tends to decrease slightly after the age of 50 years 5.
The study conducted by Johnson and Roberts tied to the prevalence of contact dermatitis by sex and age groups shows that there is a clear trend of increase in prevalence at males [ 6 ]. At women the increased prevalence rate is generally around the age of 40 years, many of those practicing domestic activities.
In conclusion, all these studies suggest that the age and sex — by themselves — are not risk factors for contact dermatitis, but may become in association with exposure to different professional and household activities. Dynamics of hospitalization after the season reflects an increase in the number of hospitalization in summer From the etiological point, the study shows a variety of factors involved in triggering and exacerbating the disease. From the etiological factors, it needs to be mentioned: Compositae family contains over 13, species, some of them are food, for consumption, other are cultivated as ornamental plants chrysanthemums and other arnica, marigold are medicinal plants.
Schmidt studied allergic contact dermatitis induced by plants from Compositae family. He found that repeated exposure causes often acute contact dermatitis, with frequent relapses and subsequently it becomes chronic, with lichenification. When it is located at the level of the elbow or knee it can simulate an atopic dermatitis. Originally localized lesions at the level of the face, hands and genitals may disseminate and have a bad prognosis, evolving to erythroderma 7.
Also, the remaining dust from these plants may induce airborne dermatitis, frequently encountered situations in the regions of desert in the US and Australia. Most of the drugs applied on tegument may determine sensitizations of different intensities. The list of topical drugs responsible for these sensitizations depends on the constitution of each individual, but also on the pharmaceutical industry to reduce the amount of topically agents capable of sensitization. In our case study of contact dermatitis from the medicines point of view there were recorded nonsteroid anti-inflammatory agents, antibiotics, topical corticosteroids etc.
In , Goh published a clinical study that included more than patients.
Contact dermatitis is a continuing challenge for the dermatologist. Diagnosis is often easy for patients with acute contact dermatitis, and the etiological agent can be mentioned on the basis of the anamnesis. In the case of subacute or chronic dermatitis, repeated anamnesis, in conjunction with the results of the diagnostic test is the main diagnostic methods.
Once you have identified the causative agent or agents, the preventive measures should be imposed primary, secondary, tertiary , representing the keystone of successful management of contact dermatitis. Unfavorable prognosis has allergic contact dermatitis due to some agents, particularly nickel and chromium. Once the contact dermatitis appears, it can persist even if the chemical agent was removed including by changing workplace.
This is explained by the destruction of the skin defense barrier, allowing the penetration of another chemical agent. Another potential cause of resistance is the existence of some threatening unknown allergen, in which case the dermatologic and symptomatic treatment is not effective.
No matter of professional or domestic involvement, the general and individual measures of prevention and protection are the key to reduce the cases of this disease in the coming years.