Equipment and modifications are recurrent, and the danger of access increases because of the loss of glacier thickness, the associated erosion of the lateral moraines and the rock-slab outcrops. The routes modifications were becoming more frequent and important in relation to the withdrawal dynamics that continues and accelerates Fig.
Between and , the glacier front moved uphill over m.
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This explains the importance and frequency of ladder installations in order to maintain access to the glacier. Between and , It also means that all the geomorphological processes that are currently affecting the access trails — in particular, the erosion of the lateral moraines — will continue to occur and will even intensify, especially as glacial shrinkage accelerates.
This would imply a thickness loss of m. This ladder section would then be about m. The goal was to create a trail that would be accessible to hikers and would connect the five refuges in the Mer de Glace basin, thus boosting the number of visitors pers. For example, the modification of the Charpoua access trail in Fig. At the same time, the historical Charpoua access trail was not modified, even though it had been considered dangerous since the mids. It is for the same reason of tourism that the connections between the Requin and Envers des Aiguilles refuges and the Couvercle and Leschaux refuges were built and equipped in and , respectively.
It may be held liable in case of an accident. This explains why i there is more regular maintenance and equipment of the access trails than in the past and ii only one access trail is selected and maintained for each refuge. They will be maintained and equipped to ensure acceptable security conditions for mountaineers but without using heavy equipment like Himalayan bridges pers. There would also be ethical concerns and a variety of opinions, depending on the actors concerned by the high mountain environment high mountain guides, refuge keepers, mountaineers, political decision-makers and environmental protection associations.
Should the use of equipment be fostered to maintain a strong economic activity despite the risk of spoiling the environment? Is it not one of the foundations of mountaineering to adapt to the environment? Otherwise, do these access trails not have a heritage value that could justify their maintenance? To study this aspect, the principal data source is the number of nights sold per summer season at every refuge.
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Unfortunately, these data are extremely spotty, and a decline in the number of nights sold could not be directly attributed to the evolution of the access trails; many other reasons weather conditions, sociocultural evolution etc. Moreover, the number of nights per refuge does not provide qualitative information.
Therefore, the analysis is based solely on the qualitative results of the interviews conducted with the refuge keepers from the — period and with the CCVCMB employees responsible for maintaining the trails.
Mer de Glace
The current refuge keepers confirm that a sizable number of hikers is visiting the site, with a peak during the 15 July—15 August period. Moreover, this use compensates for the decrease in activity when the conditions for mountaineering are not good enough — often because of hotter and hotter summers Seneviratne et al. In this case, the total number of visitors to this sector could decline significantly, which would have a strong economic impact on the refuge keepers, the high mountain guides and the French Alpine Club FFCAM.
According to the refuge keepers, mountaineers are less affected thanks to their ability to manage risks and assess physical risk in the case of a fall, as well as their technical abilities. This research focused on the evolution of high mountain environments facing global warming and shows that while the evolution of the routes is directly conditioned by glacial shrinkage, it also has a historical and social dimension.
Between and , m. Moreover, the glacier—slope transitions tend to become technically more difficult and more dangerous. This work also has a heritage component. A large part of the history of mountaineering in Mont Blanc, which is the birthplace and a high place of mountaineering, has been reconstituted. This conclusion raises the question of the future management of those routes and future visits to the refuges.
Up to what point is it going to be possible to equip the access trails and maintain acceptable security and technical conditions? It is then that a whole part of mountaineering and the economy linked to it in the Mer de Glace basin could be in jeopardy. Will the evolution of high mountain environments hasten the decline of mountaineering that seems to have started already Weiss, ? Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Global and Sectoral Aspects. Series A, Physical Geography , , p.
Communication, technologies, pouvoir , 71, p.
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Series A, Physical Geography, , p. Jacques Mourey et Ludovic Ravanel. The Mer de Glace basin, a major place for mountaineering. Earthenware tiles cover the floor, kilk jugs and wooden features display on the walls. This new restaurant, Le Panoramique offers high quality French cuisine served in a traditional style, lovingly-crafted and slow-cooked. A real culinary adventure for tourists and Chamoniards alike, delicacies include the traditional Veal blanquette, the Savoyarde pork hotpot and the Grandma's chicken casserole. Also you can find a delicious selectionod desserts: Until further notice Le Panoramique offers only a lunch time menu.
There is no evening service. This legendary restaurant possesses an authentic menu and offers quality cuisine.
At midday, enjoy the terrace with its view of the Drus and the Grandes Jorasses. A place to relax and have lunch with views across to Les Drus. And not forgetting the hotel museum free , featuring a collection of period photographs and objects, plus a model railway exhibition. Daily talk by a glaciologist explaining the landscape.
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Themed trails at Montenvers: The Montenvers Railway was the first custom built tourist attraction in the valley. It started operating in The funicular railway departs from Chamonix and makes its way up the sides of the Aiguilles de Chamonix to an altitude of 1,m. Broad banding patterns, visible on the surface of the Mer de Glace, are known as ogives , or Forbes bands, and result from differences in summer and winter collapse rates of the serac fields.
Mer de Glace - Wikipedia
It was on 24 July that Scottish physicist James David Forbes observed the pattern of light and dark dirt bands on the Mer de Glace from the nearby Charmoz and began to consider whether glaciers flowed in a similar fashion to a sluggish river and with a viscous or plastic manner. In the 18th and 19th centuries the glacier descended all the way down to the hamlet of Les Bois,  where it was known as Glacier des Bois. At that time the river Arveyron emerged from the glacier under a grotto-like vault grotte d'Arveyron  and, through the accounts of early writers and explorers,  attracted many more visitors, painters and later photographers, for example Joseph Mallord William Turner 's "Source of the Arveron in the Valley of Chamouni Savoy", The position of its front end fluctuated over the years but its maximum extent was in the midth century.
Sub glacial waters from the Mer de Glace are used seasonally by EDF for the generation of hydroelectricity. Tunnels bored under the glacier collect water from the base of the glacier and channel it down to a hydropower plant in the valley. This water is then discharged into the Arveyron further downstream.
The Mer de Glace, the Ice Cave, the Montenvers Train and the Panoramique Mer de Glace
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the alpine glacier. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Retrieved 13 January