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By the s many Maronites conceived the common arena as their patrimony.

Why Lebanon Is Fractured By The Conflicts In The Middle East

Modern Lebanon arose out of European and Ottoman intervention in the s to entrench sectarian peace in a special province. In , after the Ottoman collapse, France and the Maronites enlarged the province into the modern country, with a pluralism of communal minorities headed by Maronite Christians and Sunni Muslims. The book considers the flowering of this pluralism in the mid-twentieth century, and the strains of new demographic shifts and of social resentment in an open economy.

Christianity in the Middle East

External intrusions after the Arab-Israeli war rendered Lebanon's contradictions unmanageable and the country fell apart. The book contends that Lebanon has not found a new equilibrium and has not transcended its sects. There is an uneasy duality: Shia have largely recovered the weight they possessed in the sixteenth century, but Christians, Sunnis, and Druze are two-thirds of the country.


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He is the author of The Levant: A Fractured Mosaic and Faces of Lebanon: Sects, Wars, and Global Extensions. In this impressive synthesis, William Harris narrates the history of the sectarian communities of Mount Lebanon and its vicinity.

Lebanon: A History, - William Harris, William W. Harris - Google Книги

He offers a fresh perspective on the antecedents of modern multi-communal Lebanon, tracing the consolidation of Lebanon's Christian, Muslim, and Islamic derived sects from their origins between the sixth and eleventh centuries. The identities of Maronite Christians, Twelver Shia Muslims, and Druze, the mountain communities, developed alongside assertions of local chiefs under external powers from the Umayyads to the Ottomans. The chiefs began interacting in a common arena when Druze lord Fakhr al-Din Ma'n achieved domination of the mountain within the Ottoman imperial framework in the early seventeenth century.

Harris knits together the subsequent interplay of the elite under the Sunni Muslim Shihab relatives of the Ma'ns after with demographic instability as Maronites overtook Shia as the largest community and expanded into Druze districts.


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  • Lebanon: A History, - - William Harris - Google Книги.

By the s many Maronites conceived the common arena as their patrimony. Modern Lebanon arose out of European and Ottoman intervention in the s to secure sectarian peace in a special province.

The Middle East Journal

In , after the Ottoman collapse, France and the Maronites enlarged the province into the modern country, with a pluralism of communal minorities headed by Maronite Christians and Sunni Muslims. The book considers the flowering of this pluralism in the mid-twentieth century, and the strains of new demographic shifts and of social resentment in an open economy.

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External intrusions after the Arab-Israeli war rendered Lebanon's contradictions unmanageable and the country fell apart.