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Long-term Care, Globalization, and Justice
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DLTC work is one of the fastest Phillips, Japan will experience the most strik- growing service occupations in the United States; the ing increase: Depart- , new jobs, between and To ease ment of State and U. Global aging is gender imbalanced. Conceptualization of population aging, globalization, migration, and the long-term-care workforce. This gender differential impacts health they produce and what they purchase, although status and functioning, marital status, family care- not equally across borders. Additional barriers to oppor- economies and the use of immigration policy to tunities for women emerge when gender intersects alleviate shortages in particular occupations.
Mexico, Haiti, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. The United tional pressures for foreign exchange Tyner, States is the largest recipient of international It was estimated that in , a third of Filipinos Downloaded from http: In , the 7 million , the Ukraine, France, and India United government of the Philippines announced that the Nations, The solution for many in in communications; growth in transnational com- the Philippines is migration.
The proportion of female interna- and property. Sisson Runyan, ; Tyner, Together they remit Existing data tell us that most women migrants are more than U.
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Likewise, a number of globaliza- a few had health insurance, none owned homes in tion and immigration scholars have integrated their the United States, and all planned to return to the feminist and gender analyses into critiques of the Philippines. They also noted economic cuts across the personal and political boundaries of reasons: In devoting time to caregiving, women are hindered in education, employment, and political Broadening the Discourse Around Long-Term participation.
Moghadam , in turn, is a term-care workforce in the United States and other globalization scholar who has examined the social- nations. Department of empowerment for immigrant women in home, of Labor, Borrowing approach long-term-care workforce issues individu- ideas from Moghadam and other scholars, we ally, with scant attention to the effects of global discuss three thematic areas and their relationships aging and globalization. These are world to a growing frail older adult population? What poverty and economic inequalities, the feminization about the women who migrate and provide this and colorization of labor, and empowerment and care—what are their opportunities and challenges?
And what are the effects on source nations that are providing workers for DLTC? To shed light on these questions, we turn to the insights of a number of gerontology, globalization, and immigration schol- World Poverty and Economic Inequalities ars who have grounded their work within a feminist and gender analysis.
Internation- and across international borders. In the end, this argument may legitimize only way to improve the lives of their families.
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In contrast, evidence suggests through their savings. However, the migration of that many migrant women choose care occupations nurses, nurse aides, and other long-term-care work- because globalization, international economies, ers, who are primarily women, leaves serious health training opportunities, and immigration policy care shortages in source countries like the Philippines encourage them in this direction Oxman-Martinez Laquian, Would improvements in the economies of source Economic pressures intersect with gender and countries lessen migratory trends?
Women in Bangladesh enjoy Ling, ; Espiritu, ; Hagan, ; Oxman- expanded employment opportunities due to the Martinez et al. Migrant women working as carers organized labor unions to strengthen their bargain- are especially vulnerable to exploitation because ing power United Nations, The Grameen domestic service is often paid under the table and, as Micro-Credit Bank in rural Bangladesh is another such, local labor laws may not be enforced Pratt, positive example. Gender at Work, a knowledge- At the same time, labor market restruc- tions within source countries improve, the need and turing is developing foreign employment situations drive to migrate may diminish.
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At a microanalysis level we wonder: And at institutional feature of the U. Do developed nations and long-term care is but one example.
In the United owe a debt to those nations whose workers migrate States and other nations, eldercare remains the after receiving health-related training? Who should charge of women, either as unpaid caregivers or as pay this debt? These factors help maintain relatively low United Nations, Another may be enhanced wages for DLTC workers. Findings that immigrant women choose DLTC work because can be misconstrued to suggest that women in some it allows them to care for their own families, calling cultural groups, like Filipinas, are natural caregivers for a greater theoretical understanding of the com- Vol.
An from other nations. The authors argued that will link nurse aides to apprenticeships, com- that cultural competence training be mandated for munity colleges, and professional nursing programs all staff including supervisors and residents and its Chao, The passage of the Workforce In- delivery monitored by government. By , 1 of every 4 older adults in the Care, a; Health Workforce Solutions, United States will be a member of an ethnic minority Both offer the potential for better work conditions group U.
Creating safe and respectful working conditions work in DLTC become more ethnically and cultur- for these women also requires knowledge about ally diverse, the potential exists for each to teach the their legal rights and freedom from prejudice and other about cultural awareness. The need for legal education and empowerment may lead to increased awareness of training in cultural competence, then, must be a two- opportunities to choose another career or work path way street—both the worker and the consumer will as long as DLTC work is poorly paying and stressful.
Employers in both public and private long-term-care Practice, Policy, and Research Implications organizations must balance their need to recruit good workers with a consideration of the rights For elderly citizens to have access to a quality e.
Globalization, Women's Migration, and the Long-Term-Care Workforce | Colette Browne - inomufycifec.tk
The Macrolevel issues include fairness and unresolved issue of compensation is especially critical for policy issues around questions of global social justice immigrant women who are working not only for for both source and destination nations. There may themselves but for their families back home. In all, be a lack of consensus regarding some of these issues, 22 states have enacted the wage pass-through— and the dictating of policies may be premature.
Houser in raising a number of research Data on the effectiveness of this policy are not yet questions that raise our awareness and deserve our available, and decisions that individual states are attention.
Should Better Jobs, Better Care. Organizational cultural competency migration policy allow source countries to reduce assessment: An intervention and evaluation. Paraprofes- their capacity to deliver equitable and accessible sional Healthcare Institute. And to what extent will these Creek, CA: Perceptions of dementia, caregiving, and citizens in these source countries? Health and Social Work, 23, — Women, feminism, and aging. Filipinas as residential long- term care providers: Johannessen - - Christian Bioethics 15 2: Justice and Long-Term Care: A Theological Ethical Perspective. Heinrich Bedford-Strohm - - Christian Bioethics 13 3: Jeremy Sugarman , Dale E.
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