On its head, bristling with a double pointed horn, its bloodfilled eyes appeared above a maw the jaws of which were fortified with triple rows of fangs and teeth; the tongue, pointed as a javelin, gave off a poisonous fluid. Sometimes the monster lay in tortuous rings, it lay on the ground and slithered forward in abrupt jumps; sometimes it moved straight as an arrow and rapid as lightening. Neither the basalt rocks, the flanks of which are steep as walls, nor the wildest rivers, nor the branches of the sea where the waves toss with fury can stop its frightful advance. The serpent only left ruins in its wake; the fields over which its body had passed, as he devoured horses and cows, instantly became waste and the grasses of the fields were burned.
The water of the rivers where it drank began to stink and fetid ooze spreading unknown diseases came out of the forests where it had rested at night. For a while it had eaten animals, but after a few weeks it began to make a meal of people; at night it would roam near the villages, catching in its maw the benighted; the women who were washing, children coming back from school, all of them had been eaten in the hundreds.
Nobody dared to leave the house, and in rich as well as poor cities, the Irish were stunned and they commanded their souls to God. What crime had the island committed for God to send them such a scourge? He ordered him, without delay, to bring the weapons that that had served him to kill the serpent to the sanctuary that he had chosen on earth. But, before the bishop had the time to ask the chief of the celestial armies for the name of the sanctuary that pleased above all others, Saint Michael disappeared. See h and b.
The heart was really the most popular ex-voto. There was generally a little cross on the top or a flame, surrounded by a crown of thorns, inlaid with flowers or initials; often, they were hollow; they opened then like a watch and inside you could place a piece of vellum on which one could write the object of a wish asked or fulfilled. An offering made in pursuance of a vow. This expression or better this comparison has intrigued the folklore specialists for a long time; finally one of them, slightly more intelligent, told his colleagues that the protestants did not render to the saints the veneration that was their due.
And that explained the surname! I remember, in any case, being told that in Mont-Saint-Michel and the neighbouring coast, the roosters laid the eggs. I asked a very clever man for an explanation: All the roosters of the land were terrified: Il a dit quelque part: For the profane among us, the cockle is no more than a humble mollusk, formed by two symmetrical valves. They are everywhere in the estuaries of the little Breton and Normand rivers, in the delta of the Vilaine, in the cove of Fresnaye, under cape Frehel and, especially, in the bay of Mont-Saint-Michel.
Of this abundance a proverb was born that means doing something useless: Latin name of the common cockle. Carry an owl to Athens. Toussenel, alone, in his The Soul of the Animals , could have told us the reason for their change of address; they choose banks of sand of a different nature; there is the slate bank, when the sand is light blue; the cockles that one catches there taste like mud; they are much better in the white or reddish grouet , which means in bed of pure sand.
Pisciferos amnes, multo salmone feraces. One has even said that the salmon were so common that the farm servants of the river shores stipulated in their contracts that they could only eat salmon twice a week. This is a legend that one can also hear in England. Streams well-stocked with fish, abundant in salmon.
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Why was the name Omar changed into that of Homar and even of Homard? Were the good religious scribes thinking of the excellent crustaceans, with their sharp and long pincers, that live so abundantly in the bay of Saint-Malo? One can only suppose; we can easily see why Omar had Nicolas as a first name, the name of his sponsor: Il fallait les faire casquer comme on dit de nos jours.
It had come to the due attention of the intendant of the Generality of Caen that the barracks of the guards of the Grande Porte and their cisterns were dirty. Everybody agreed on the need for repairs, but nobody wanted to start them; the builders, after having been made aware of the plans and the funds, refused to cooperate and then … nobody wanted to pay. No more water; it had to be brought in by barrel or cask, from Rive, more than a half a league away.
The people of the Mont did not have a red cent in their municipal coffers; the Royal Treasury was just as dry as the cisterns. Only the monks were rich, or at least, the unlucky ones were thought to be rich: They had to cough up, as we would say now. Cela se reproduit encore maintenant. All those conversations produce a strange murmur: Thief, someone has taken my purse! They were under surveillance of the police: A recent law now obliges the nomads, even when they are French citizens, to have their identity cards checked by the mayor and the gendarmes.
Naturally, scum and thieves sneaked among the Egyptians, scum and thieves; the complaints of their victims were frequent enough; one sometimes caught these robbers, but it was difficult to find the purses that had been stolen and when they were found on the pavement of the street, they were empty.
That still happens today. The pilgrims also complained of the goglus. These were not other than pisteurs , the unbearable pisteurs of today. Our current etymologists find, in the word goglu , the Celtic root gog which implies a sense of fraud or deception. However that may be, already in , Thomas Le Roy writes about the crimes of these bad people. He shows how the archdeacon of the Mont blamed several burhers of the town for giving shelter to these gogglues, who brought them pilgrims, and thus also the freedom to stay wherever they wanted.
In pre-revolutionary France , a police force under the command of the Marshals of France. This deliberation was never emptied , as they say in the palace. Since there was no escaping being eaten, they preferred to be eaten with a Benedictine sauce rather with a royal one; and who will say they were wrong? Was Hugo looking for his hat or did he do like the beautiful girls who half-complain when they have thrown their hats above the mills [i.
Et sentant sur sa croupe! Elle vous caressa par un muet accueil,. Elle ne le dit pas: You will find it in manuscript of the Library at the Arsenal in Paris , volume IX, folios Conrart ends his long epistle with this awful tirade: Your beautiful feet have touched it like one touches the grass,. It bends before its invincible pride,. And feeling on its croup! She caresses you with a dumb welcome,.
Then, when she sees of your departure the cruel hour,. She does not tell you: I tell you for her. In the course of the centuries, she was given sisters and, thanks to the generosity of the kings of France, the princes of the Church and devout pilgrims, the Mont-Saint-Michel carillon was one of the best in the world; unfortunately the fire from the skies would destroy the tower and the bells were melted down. Among the bells there is one still today with a special mission, to give guidance to poor people lost in the fog?
It is called for that reason the bell of the mists. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, she cracked. It was a sort of penitence. One day the lord of that place, who had lots of sins of infidelity weighing on him, clang to the cord that he feverishly rang for such a long time that the bell cracked. The religious thought it was a pity; their laments reached to the other side of the Rhine to the abbot who owned the living; he was a German. Tombelaine was, it seems, in prehistory the seat of a college of druidesses, of small virtue, if we are to believe the prudish chroniclers of Mont-Saint-Michel.
His corpse was found, a few days later, in Colombel, in Saint-Broladre. Unit ends with what appear to be three ditto signs. Kinane Saint Patrick If the Prophet Jeremias was sanctified, as he was, in his mother's womb, because his heavenly mission was to announce to the world the mysteries and revelations of the  Almighty; if St.
Nations were converted, and at the touch of persecution have lost the faith; to-day, after centuries of unparalleled suffering and trials, Erin professes the same holy faith which St. Patrick, nigh fifteen hundred years ago, preached to the Kings at Tara; she professes the same faith as pure and holy as it fell from the divine lips of Jesus Christ Himself. Under God, thanks to the prayers of our glorious Apostle, St.
Joseph , pray for me, and obtain for me the grace of a happy death. Although cancelled with d above, this unit was not transferred to the draft. The Vita Quinta, written by Probus, in the ninth century, begins thus: Patrick, who was called Socket, was a Briton by birth [ The Jewish feast of tents or tabernacles. Martin of Tours, was born in Pannonia , Modern Hungary.
Francis of Assisium [ Palladius, entering the land of the Scots [ We agree with those writers, who hold that St. Patrick was born in the year ; taken captive in , in his sixteenth years of his age; returned to his native country in ; and after 38 years spent in study, prayer, penance, and the science of the Saints, under the greatest masters in Christendom, was Consecrated bishop in in the sixtieth year of his age. Langan and many learned writers assign for the date of our Saint's birth, and his consecration in , in the 45th year of his age.
Not found in Kinane St. Le Mont Saint-Michel Inconnu As a five year old saw it, through the distant fog of the great bay, through the trees of the Garden of Plants in Avranches, where the college boys would frolic; Tiphaine Raguenel, the astrologer of the Mont-Saint-Michel, could have told me, if I had asked for horoscope of her divination arts, that the name of the archangel would often come out of my pen, because I was born on 29 September, the feastday of the Prince of the Heavenly Host; but I am neither so presumptuous nor so superstitious, so I had better explain why I so much like the historical works on the Mont-Saint-Michel.
For three hundred years, Avranches, where I was born, has been the most active and fecund michelian workshop of all of Normandy. On the presses of its first printer was printed a little manual for the Pilgrim to the Mont, work of Father Feu-Ardent, a Franciscan all aflame with love for mount Tumbe; it was also in the attics of the Central School in this city, just a few steps from the famous school where tradition claims that Anselm and Lanfranc taught, that were hidden, after the pillage of the abbey by the revolutionaries, those famous manuscripts, pride and glory of the City of Books.
It was their penultimate rest; they lost a few of their leaves that were torn out to have beautiful pictures; or they were sold as vellum. In the end, they were deposited in the library of the city and more or less methodically ordered on shelves close to a gutter, the most humid place in the room. For the last fifteen years they have been occupying a less dangerous and more dignified place. Qui contre la grand mer est rive,. Some of the privileged could descend by way of the posterns of the Merveille, but, if one wanted to go up from the shore, it was necessary to scale a steep and wild slope,.
That is a shore against the great sea,. You had to climb over the ruins of the stairs that used to go from the fountain of Saint-Aubert, with the conic trunnion, all the way to the low gate of the Montgommeries; you were obliged to push aside the thick brush at the same spot where the 98 Huguenots were buried, killed on the night of 28 and 29 September Our Saint turning towards the four points of the heavens blessed the plains, and the snow disappeared […] The Druid now brought darkness over the plains; but was unable to remove it.
Patrick prayed to the Lord, and immediately a bright sun dispelled the darkness—second victory over the enemy. They wondered at the appearance of the clerics, and imagined they were fir-sidhe, or phantoms. They questioned Patrick, 'Whence are you, and whither sic have you come? Is it from the sidhe? Is it under the earth, or on the earth, or in the seas, or in the streams, or in hills, or in valleys?
Has He sons or daughters? Has He gold and silver? Is there a profusion of every good in His kingdom. Tell us plainly how we shall see Him, and how He is to be loved, and how He is to be found. Is He young or old, or is He ever-living? Is He beautiful, or have many fostered His son, or is His daughter handsome, and dear to men of the world? Patrick, full of the Holy Spirit, responded: He inspireth all things, He quickeneth all things, He enkindleth all things; He giveth light to the sun and to the moon.
He created fountains in the dry land, and placed dry islands in the sea, and stars to minister to the greater lights. He hath a Son co-eternal and co-equal with Himself; and the Son is not younger than the Father, nor is the Father older than the Son. And the Holy Ghost are not divided. I desire moreover to unite you to the Son of the heavenly King, for ye are daughters of an earthly king. Teach us duly that we may see the Lord face to face —teach us, and we will do as you will say to us. Patrick said, 'Do you believe that through baptism the sin of your mother and your father shall be put away from you?
And  Patrick said to them,' You cannot see Christ except that you first taste death, and unless you receive the body of Christ, and His blood. This beautiful passage delineates the faith and zeal of our Saint, as well as the grace and unction attached to his preaching, while on the other hand, it unfolds the beautiful simplicity of the youthful princesses, and the wondrous effect of God's efficacious grace upon their hearts and souls.
Whilst our Saint preached and baptized at Cashel, the prince Aengus stood by his side; and the sharp point of the crozier […] pierced his foot from which the blood flowed most copiously; the fervent convert bore the pain in silence; and when St. Daire said unto the saint: Gratzacham when I give, Gratzacham when I take away. His saying is so good that with those Gratzachams his cauldron shall be brought back to him. See 21 9 a. God sometimes gives to his great Servants while on earth, a foretaste of the joys of heaven. Hence, we are not surprised that extraordinary, heavenly signs and prodigies are recorded to have taken place at the death of our Saint.
On the 17th of March, in the year , at the age of , amid the sweet songs of the Angels, and a supernatural light from heaven, St. Patrick, the Apostle of Ireland, breathed forth his pure soul into the hands of his Creator. During the first part he recited a hundred Psalms, making at the same time two hundred genuflections. This entry was later used at FW Compare the citations at c and g for example. See also 36 a. Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu One of the first pages of this history was written on the gross canvas of the Bayeux Tapestry. This is the fragment in which we see Harold and William, both of them passing the sanctuary of the Archangel, before warring against Conan, duke of Brittany.
The Mont appears, on the canvas of queen Mathilda, massive and already colossal with Romanesque arcades. It is no longer the culmen contemplationis of the ancient chronicles, we can imagine the fortress. We feel that, caught between hammer and anvil, between Brittany and a Normandy where a duchy will grow into a kingdom, it will undergo countless attacks, receive but also give hard blows. Ce registre a disparu. One of the great monastic builders of the Mont , he shares with Robert the glory of being also its great librarian.
He bought numerous volumes and in order to classify the hundred of property titles of the monastery in orderly and methodical fashion, he created himself a register that was called Quanandrier or Rented Paper, with another book that was called the White book because of the colour of its cover and in which he had transcribed all the originals of the donations to the abbey. The latter register has disappeared.
He is the architect of the Cartulary. The Cartulary is situated in the North-West conrner of the Merveille: At the moment the cartulary that tourists do not have access to, forms a museum at the top floor where some objects are assembled that were discovered during the repair works. Muniment room is one of the senses of the French word chartrier cartulary. It can also designate the contents of this room, i.
The first I opened turned out to be ancient manuscripts on vellum, of a careful writing and more or less well conserved; some of them had gold and illuminated initials; in a few others this gold had aroused the greed of the idle or of children: The ordinary writing had tempted nobody and it had suffered no other wounds than those of time.
We passed several hours in repairing them and to make an inventory and we found the precious Cartulary which we had feared lost. To falsify or feign; to flatter; to wheedle. Let it be in the Lord. Perhaps short for Fiat in nomine Domini. Let it be, in the name of the Lord. Fiat, Fiat in Domino.
If someone wants to know the name of the scribe, here it is: New gods of another origin, social gods, we could say, have taken the most important role. The reason may be that, no more than those of ancient Latium , the gods of Gaul had a clearly defined personality. They were conceived as vague spirits, abstract powers of physical phenomena, more or less conventional geniuses of social groups.
They had neither face nor body. The brenn who pillaged Delphi laughed a lot, it seems, at the idea that men of marble or bronze could represent the gods of the Greeks. Neither did he understand that one could imagine being able to lock up divinity in the cella of a temple.
In its very vagueness, the conception that the Gauls had of their gods was vaster vaster and more grandiose than the imagination of the Greeks. Le feu consume le tout. It is there that they decided the common business of the land. After these meetings, general or local, the judge became priest again.
For the health of the city or the nation he made solemn sacrifices. Immense wicker mannequins were filled with live men, preferably criminals, but when they did not have any, innocent people. The fire killed them all. Pliny the older shows us also that the druids presided at less cruel rites [fn: It was in the oak woods that they had their sanctuaries and they did not do their sacred rites without oak leaves. They believed that the appearance of the mistletoe reveals the presence of the god of the tree on which it grows. When they found it on an oak, they cut it with great ceremonies. They chose the sixth day of the moon because they believed that on that day the star possesses all its vigour and it has not completed half of its journey.
Under the sacred tree they prepare a banquet and a sacrifice; they bring two white steers whose horns have not yet carried a yoke. A priest in a white robe climbs the tree: The druids then kill the victims while asking the god that the mistletoe may bring happiness to all to whom he has given it. Also they confided the education of their children to the druids, even of those not destined to become priests. In each city and maybe also in centers away from the cities, the druids led real scholastic establishments. They are the masters who shape the youth of Gaul.
The education they give consists of the learning by heart by the pupils of a great number of verses. Aengus divides the Irish Saints into three classes. The first class, extending from the year to , begins with St. Patrick, and numbers Saints, all bishops and founders of Churches. Patrick; one Mass; one mode of celebration; one tonsure from ear to ear. The second class, extending from the year to , counts Saints. The third class, extending from the year to , numbers Saints, comprising bishops, priests, and laymen.
In the whole island, sometimes there were only a few bishops, and they concealed in their hiding-places ; the priests, who succeeded to land in Ireland from the Continent, travelled through the country in disguise, preparing the dying, encouraging the living, and not unfrequently sealing their faith in their blood; our Cathedrals were converted into Protestant conventicles, and no church or chapel left through the land.
Approbations Owing to continuous absence from home for a lengthened period, I could not acknowledge your kind letter and thank you for your gift earlier. In danger from the sea. Many of them were sick or crippled; that is why, in a quite large circle around Mont-Saint-Michel , hospitals, leproseries and poor houses had been erected.
These hospitals, usually administered by clerics, could not shelter all who asked for help. The deplorable hygienic conditions in which the pilgrims live, contaminated the land. Leprosy especially ravaged the land and the leper houses where the unfortunates were treated, for better or worse, were always full. Les bords de celle ouverture sont un peu amincis, lisses au dehors comme au-dedans. Footnote  The head of saint Aubert is preserved still at the basilica of Saint-Gervais in Avranches.
Tradition has it that the archangel saint Michael, while appearing to saint Aubert, put his finger in the skull of the the bishop who did listen to his commands. This curious relic shows us that the bone of the skull and of the face are still attached. The only things missing are the lower maxillary bone and the teeth of the upper jaw: The rims of the opening are a bit thinner, smooth outside as inside.
Nothing in the periphery of the opening, neither in the length of the bone, shows the action of an instrument, the application of something biting or corrosive. Everything is mooth as if this opening had been made without violence and a long time befor the death of the subject.
We can neither assume that this opening was the result of the application of a trephine of which it does not show the form. This miraculous water was sold in bottles to the pilgrims. Je les ai vus bien souvent passer en troupes. Sur les chroniques allemandes consultez: For the most part these were children of 13 years old. They sang canticles to Saint Michael and before them went a flag with an image of the archangel.
I have often seen them pass in groups. On the German chronicles consult: These strange movements have been carefully analysed by different authors from beyond the Rhine. Janssen found in these episodes the old habit of the Germans to run across the world, the currendi libido? The ideal lasts only for a time. Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 69 n: Archives du Calvados , mai ; Certificats. Archives du Calvados , May ; Certificates.
Parmi ces poissons, mulets, bars, plies, soles, esturgeons, maquereaux, etc. It has been claimed but we have not been able to find definite proof of the fact that before salmon was so common in the country that domestics in the farms on the Normandy coast forced on their masters when they applied for a position the condition not to have them eat salmon more than three times a week. Unfortunately the fire of , the result of a thunderstorm, destroyed the abbey: Huynes, destroyed the church: It seemed impossible to rebuild such a magnificent monastery, burnt five times already, and that it was a clear sign that God did not like such splendid buildings.
It carries the arms of the abbey and that of the Benedictines of the Congregation of Saint-Maur. Fleming St Patrick viii: The fifth Life, written by Probus, an Irish monk who died in Meyence in the year , is considered to be an amended version of St. Fleming St Patrick vii: The seventh, or Tripartite Life, is of a much later date.
Fleming St Patrick Probus states that St. Patrick, after he fled from Ireland , landed at Bordeaux Brotgalum. Its tonnage was no more than 50; Kyde had also chartered a whaler of 31 tonnage; these two ships had 13 armed men and 56 archers and sailors. One was called The Trinity; she had been brought from Orwell England by Gautier Dubois; its weight wqs 80, it took 29 sailors in defense and in crew.
Wichelsea had armed Le George and maybe The Trinity too, with 20 men captain included. Granville had armed a vessel that belonged to Damours le Bouffi; it had a tonnage of 15, with 17 sailors and soldiers on board. Perhaps inspired by the Homeric list of ships of the English fleet on page , on their way to fight the French in , from which the above quotation is taken. But see l. Maclovii pardis dat vulnera cancer in vadis.
Il contient, en effet. The text itself of the Chronicle of the Mont says so explicitly: The paragraph ends like this: The Latin motto translates as: Au total une garnison de. Every armed man was accompanied by a page and a courtier; two archers had one servant. So when at a certain date it is claimed that 20 armed men were at Tombelaine, that means the following: A total garrison of … men.
Knox and the Reformation. Presumably a follower of John Knox c. The orthographic shift of the names its frequent when it involves the transcription of foreign names. These prisoners were men of renown. Norman Lesley was, we know, one of the most distinguished champions of the Scottish Reformation. In Lesley, at the head of a small group of fifteen men, butchered cardinal Beaton at the castle of Saint Andrew and locked himself in the fortress he had just taken with Knox, the great Scottish reformer. Pelham or Adventures of a Gentleman. Novel by Bulwer Lytton, published Four years before the Stapleton was jailed, there entered in the prison of the mount, the gazetteer Victor de la Castagne, better known under the name of Dubourg, originally from Espalion.
The prisoner died voluntarily of hunger on 26 August He had arrived on the Mont in September ; he was detained for a little less than a year and not thirty as some authors have claimed. He was held on the Mont for several years. He was a writer, less famous for his work than for his bad luck. It is true that it was baptized Free Mount and later Villefranche. From to it can be said that Les Chevaliers de Saint-Michel.
The superior administration was plagued by complaints of all kinds. The doctors were ignorant, the chaplain was treated as a monster in soutane, the director was barbaric tyrant and a uniformed Nero. Especially the chaplain was vilified. Auguste Blanqui wrote to his friend Fulgence Girard, lawyer at the bar in Avranches: He is known as a greedy man, without faith, bad, false; he is dirty as a comb and uglier than the ugliest of monkeys. He is the one who thought up the iron bars that have turned our cells into iron cages. See o and h. Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu n 2: They were no more than latrines or else mass graves.
We understand that the besieged could not throw beyond the ramparts the bodies of those who had died inside the Mont , monks or soldiers. They were made to disappear in hidden holes that the political passions had transformed into abominable in pace! A book or table in which the places of the heavenly bodies and other astronomical matters are tabulated in advance for each day of a certain period; an astronomical almanac see OED. Dans ce manuscrit, chaque mois commence par un vers? Il indique les jours funestes de chaque mois.
It indicates the unlucky days of each month. To this day tourists, admiring and credulous people, are shown a very beautiful tower, called the Guet Tower. But historical truth does not agree for the excellent reason that the Guet Tower was built under Robert Jolivet, between and It is enough to look at the tower once to recognize the building methods of the fifteenth century. But Tiphaine died in Dinan in , i. In any case, to us the date seems very questionable.
His name was Geoffroy of Servon, a name based, undoubtedly, on a small parish at approximately three leagues from Mont Saint-Michel which had as its lords the noble lineage of the Foulques Paynel. The girls from Landerneau. Who smells like thyme and white roses? The girls of Lesneven]. Not found in Myrdhinn. This is the single occurrence of the word in the book.
He is seated on a black horse, his coat is black, his hair is black, his face is black and he is black all over. Merlin recognised Colombanus, the great doctor of the Irish church ]. Patrick in the year moved onward to a place called Druim-Sailech, or the Field of Sallows, but afterwards called Armagh , on account of its eminence. Feeling that she was close to the end, although her fortieth spring had not yet blossomed, she called Geoffroy de Servon to her side.
Six hours was enough to go from the Mont to Dinan. He consoled her with pious words and these evoked, one can be sure, quite a few memories of Mont Saint-Michel; then the abbot gave lady Duguesclin the last sacraments and the rather mystical soul of the fairy lady escaped from her gentle body and flew away into eternity through the ethereal spaces in which the worlds rotate.
Two days later, Geoffroy officiated pontifically at the church of Saint-Saviour in Dinan and his voice trembled, surely from emotion, when he gave the last blessing; in the end the convoy went, slowly, towards the convent of the Jacobins and the coffin disappeared soon in the dark caves of the chapel. When he had discarded his priestly vestments, the good abbot certainly lavished consolations on the unfortunate constable. These were undoubtedly eloquent and persuasive: Duguesclin married his second wife, Jeanne de Laval, in Excellent Catholic as she was, she did not mind that several members of her family had been Huguenots and she even liked to recall that one of her great-grandmothers, who was born at the beginning of the seventeenth century, told her around Ils en furent pour leurs frais.
The monks wanted from the bishop the privilege of being able to hear confession of everybody who came to them; they started negotiations with the bishop of Avranches for that purpose and it was during these that they offered him this beautiful fish. It was in vain. So they made a pun on his name: Married to Isabeau de la Tiral who was, after his death, dame of Ducey, he had four boys and four girls.
He wsa beheaded in , but the sentence of villenage against his children was never executed. His elder son, Gabriel II, married to Suzanne de Boucquetot with whom he had five sons and a daughter, was a terrible enemy of the Mont. We know that he failed to take the abbey-fortresse by guile on the night of 29 and 30 August Any person who was vindictive, unjust, impious or cruel, was immediately likened by the people to Montgommery, so much that one ceased to distinguish between the members of the family.
No difference was made between Jacques and the two Gabriels. The legend represented him as ceasely roaming the Normandy coast, from Coutances to Pontorson. Not a single castle that he did not visit every month; he tried to spend counterfeit money in Tombelaine; at night he traveled with a horse shod backwards to confuse those who attempted to follow him, he arrested pilgrims who were late; having become the devil himself, as soon as he was on horseback, he martyred poor priests whom he forced to say sacrilegious masses in his parishes of Chasseguay, Cormeray and de Ducey.
Rien pour les autres, tout pour lui.
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The division of a legal argument. It carries thus in itself the proof its mendacity. These frauds are not rare; mostly they derive from an excessive love on the part of the monks for their monastery; the older the abbey or the priory, the greater its glory; so the forgers wanted to help the descendants of the donors to regain the goods that had been given by their ancestors. Finally in Hampshire he held from the king one hide and the tithing for the manor of Basinguestoches, today Basingtoke. Old English measure of land, the equivalent of acres, variously defined as sufficient to support a family, or as much as could be ploughed in one year.
Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu n 3: Pigeon had wanted to place the old Hotel des Monnaies. At the bottom of the hole, carved into the granite, one found two or three metal ingots. Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu [immediately following the previous quotation]: The sign this was the name of any object of metal, jewel, figure or medal was worn attached to a beret. Most of the images were molten in slate or Munich stone molds.
The mouth of a river. It is used in geography to designate a narrow valley invaded by the sea. The Normans themselves, so proud to have on their marine land the expression was coined by the troubadour Wace the eighth wonder of the world, have long realized that the bay belongs more to the Bretons than to their own province. You will receive the warmest welcome.
Natu- rally, respect is fundamental. Meanwhile, people from all communities celebrate Christmas! Its rugged terrain offers an impressive range of mountain activities. From a gentle stroll to extreme trekking, the two peaks and the cirques of Salazie, Cilaos and Mafate abound in magical places. Lovers of canyoning, downhill mountain- biking and climbing will be in their element. The Indian Ocean also offers a whole host of activities.
Big-game fishing, catamaran trips, surfing, windsurfing, kitesurfing… Definitely extreme sports, but which can be tried out in complete safety in the hands of professionals who guarantee a top-qua- lity service. Let your taste buds discover the smells, aromas and flavours of distant lands.
A wind of European, African, Malagasy and Asian influences blows across your plate. The traditional dish is cari. For there are as many kinds of cari as there are ways of preparing them. Cari can be made of fish, chicken, meat or seafood. Even when picnicking, families do not hesitate to take along their stainless-steel cooking pot and pre- pare the cari outdoors.
The Sunday picnic is a veritable Creole tradition. Families do not spend the day in front of the television, but out of doors, on the beaches or in the heart of the forest. There are many sites with provision for this fantastic tradition! Another very popular dish is fresh palm- heart salad: A Creole meal is not truly Creole without a glass of rum to round it off. Vanilla seedlings were introduced, but no one knew how this orchid with its complex flower was pollinated.
To this day, the process has hardly chan- ged. Bourbon vanilla is cultivated from Sainte-Suzanne to Saint-Philippe, in the forest or on supports of Dracaena reflexa. A Creole meal is not complete without a vanilla coffee. Vanilla cultivation really took off after it was imported into Europe. The Blue Flag is present in 41 countries and has been awarded to over 3 sites. For its edition, which has as its patron French yachtswoman Maud Fon- tenoy, the Blue Flag was initially awarded on 7 May to 77 marinas against 76 in Each actor is required to fulfil ten com- mitments, which must be clearly displayed in their premises.
The signatories of the quality charter undergo regular appraisals to ensure they are complying with the charter. Throughout this document, they are identified with this logo: A regularly updated list of organisations that subscribe to the RQT charter is available at: Two other marinas also joined its ranks: Concer- ned about their entitlement to equal treatment, LGBT lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender customers also wish to receive a friendly welcome.
In this res- pect, the certainty of a gay-friendly welcome is one of their specific expec- tations. Through the charter, LGBT visitors are guaranteed a warm welcome and quality service provision. Drawn up in the form of a statement of intention, the charter is an assurance to gays and lesbians that they will be treated with respect. It is intended as a set of hospitality guide- lines, to ensure that all categories of visitor receive the same treatment. Par- ticipating establishments are identified with this logo: The international symbol of the gay and lesbian community, the rainbow is an emblem of togetherness and peace.
It is as an assurance of respect for LGBT identities from those establishments that display it. Through a network of 15 villages, over accommodation, catering and lei- sure providers will introduce you to their traditions and the Creole way of life. An ongoing effort is made to keep buil- dings in harmony with Creole tradition. Prioritising meeting local people, the dif- ferent itineraries include guided tours of the villages and surrounding areas for example, the Creole houses and gardens tour, flower walks and walks in the pri- mitive bois de couleurs forests.
They give visitors a chance to see local pro- duction banana and sugar-cane plantations, history of coffee-roasting, etc. All in a spirit which draws a distinction between mere tou- rism and a real sharing experience! On the coast and reef: A plastic bag, for example, can be deadly if swallowed by a turtle.
Primary forests, as at the dawn of time. Volcanic, basalt soil which claims an exceptional geological heri- tage. A young lagoon with many rare and fragile coralline treasures. All are mindful that this environment is a treasure that needs preserving, which is why the island is committed to its protection. We tourism professionals can help: In addition, it has the dis- tinctive feature of containing inhabited areas.
The interior of the cirques is an open book on the geological his- tory of the Piton des Neiges. Its main objectives are: To value that heritage through information and communication actions. To inform and raise awareness among visitors of the fragility of these natural sites. There are only some twenty pairs left! These ecotourism products have received the backing of the local authorities commu- nities of communes, tourist offices and are now offered by major tour operators.
The huts are highly prized for their authenticity and natural setting. To find out the conditions of the paths, region by region, a regularly updated information bulletin is provided on the ONF helpline: It also contributes to improving knowledge of natural habitats. All these living organisms contribute to maintaining the equilibrium of this com- plex ecosystem. However, for decades, the reef has suffered the impact of the development of human activities. Today, it is in danger. The aim of this marine trail is to raise awareness among the public and school children of this degra- dation, so that eco-friendly attitudes are adopted.
Free of charge, a guide intro- duces you to the beauty and fragility of the coral reef. Up to 2 flights to Lyon and Marseille. Available at all travel agencies. This is obviously the case for Air France, through its own network and that of its partners. Up to 12 flights a week. Up to 2 flights a week via Mayotte. Up to 4 flights a week 2 direct and 2 via Mayotte.
Up to 7 flights a week 6 direct and 1 via Mayotte. Up to 5 flights a day. Up to 1 flight per day from Saint-Pierre except Tues- days and Thursdays. The times given are for indication only and are subject to alteration. Business and lei- sure breaks and transfers. Airport shuttle service throughout the island. Passengers and luggage insu- red against all risks. Seven days a week, 24 hours a day. Les Avirons, Saint-Louis Average journey time: Le Port, La Possession Average journey time: To use these services, you must book your seat by calling the Car Jaune booking line.
The service must be booked in advance, by telephone, no later than 5 pm the day before. Transport for senior citizens: Sundays and public holidays: The above information is for indication only. All additional enquiries should be addressed to: Car Jaune Information Line: For all enquiries, Monday to Friday, 7. For information on itineraries and time- tables, please contact: VAT, not including pick-up charge, baggage fee or surcharge for airport pick-up. These taxis should not be considered bilingual.
All of the taxis in the list are indepen- dent except for GIE Paille en Queue, which is a group of independent taxis with a shared telephone number and call centre. The law allows taxi operators to pick up customers in any commune, provided it is in response to a prior telephone booking. Taxis may only pick up customers in the street wi- thout a prior telephone booking in their licensed area a specific commune or airport. Customers may be dropped off anywhere they wish. Taxi drivers orga- nised in groups can be contacted by telephone.
Saint-Denis 24 hrs a day: Some companies offer discount packages e. On the whole, prices are below those charged in metropolitan France with VAT of 8. Transfers and excursions all over the island. HA 01 ZI. Bel-Air - Saint-Louis Tel.: Five sites near the airports and hotels in Saint-Gilles. Weekly pro- gramme of excursions for individuals. Private services transfers, excursions, sightseeing tours.
Group quotes on request. Excur- sions, sightseeing tours and other requests. Available for individual transfers, VIPs, groups and incentive trips. Sightseeing tours with daily depar- tures guaranteed. Caters for all types of transport and tou- rism on the island. Sight- seeing tours, works councils, educatio- nal excursions, school services and occasional trips.
Sightseeing tours and excursions on request. Excursions, transfers and incentive trips. Group services on request. Excursions, a variety of land, air and water activities, island sightseeing, etc. Sightseeing tours, excursions and trips on request. Sightseeing on request, hotel-airport transfers and transport to sites. Minibus hire with driver and gui- ded sightseeing tours. HA 02 for contact details, see above www.
Its purpose is to: PK 27 Bourg-Murat Tel.: Walking tour with heritage guide. Compagnie des Indes French East India Company At the corner of a narrow cobbled street or in the cathedral square, our guide will tell the story of the French East India Company, together with historical anec- dotes concerning the construction of Saint-Denis. Learn about the five pillars of Islam from an imam. Find out about Chinese philo- sophy and the symbolism of offerings to Guan Di. Much more than a tour, Saint-Denis des Religions is a little journey into the depths of a unique island world.
Guided tours every Saturday at 9 am. A guided tour is offered on the first Saturday of each month. While all around, bountiful nature beckons, to Sunday strollers and experienced walkers alike. Hampers of local products for export. Sunday, 9 am to Here, a heritage guide tells the stories and secrets behind tropical plants, flowers of the southern hemisphere, exotic fruits and fragrant spices.
Guided tours on Wednesdays at 10 am, Thursdays at 2. For visits on other days, please contact us. Disabled access at 21 bis, Rue Sainte-Marie. The museum is home to a permanent collection of paintings which are representative of the evolution of 19th-century art, from neoclassicism to modern art. Free of charge, on the first Sunday of each month, for children under 18 years, school parties, students, those in receipt of CMU, disabled people and members of organisations in the museum sector.
The building, a listed historic monument, is itself worth the detour. Open Tuesday to Sunday, 9. Closed on 1 May. Through thousands of moving relics, this museum retraces the overlapping histories of the diffe- rent communities that populate the island. A message of tolerance for all the family to explore. Open all day on Wednesdays and Saturdays, and on other days by appointment only.
Open Monday to Satur- day, 9 am to 6 pm. With cane fields as far as the eye can see, a jagged shoreline and a wild ocean, everything here exudes authenticity. Along the way are some breathtaking views and enchanting panoramas. Each bend brings a new discovery! La Vierge Noire This little shrine celebrates the legend of the escaped slave Mario. He prayed to the Virgin to protect him from his pur- suers, and a miraculous bush appeared there and then to hide him.
A pilgrimage to the statue of the Black Virgin takes place on 1 May. An original way to take to the skies. For contact details, see p. Finally, the tour leads you before the gates of the famous prison of Madame Desbassyns. Tours run twice a month, on the first and third Wednesday, at 9 am. A major centre for the sugar industry, it has preserved many remnants of its important past. Today, Sainte-Suzanne is a modern town in the country. First, you will need to buy the vegetables and spices at the market.
Our guide will help you choose the best produce. Lunch is ser- ved in the gardens of the lighthouse, overlooking the Indian Ocean. Screwpine weaving By the shade of the Phare de Sainte-Su- zanne lighthouse, learn the basics of weaving vacoa common screwpine. You will be able to take away the fruits of your labours: Two Saturdays per month. Its two hec- tares of wonderful grounds, planted with ancient, rare species of trees, jea- lously guard the secret of three centuries of Creole history. Sale of vanilla and vanilla products on site.
Times of guided tours: The lighthouse The only lighthouse that still flashes anywhere in the Indian Ocean, it guided incoming ships to the island between and Now disused, this lis- ted historic monument is today an exhi- bition space. There are plenty of places to enjoy fishing, bathing and watersports such as canoe polo. Ba- thing is not supervised. For contact de- tails of canyoning and via ferrata professionals, see p. Here, beside the turquoise lagoon, is also where the most beautiful beaches of white sand and the big hotels are to be found. But that is not all: And in this region where there is always a party going on, a whole host of festivals and events make for a really lively cultural life.
Its broad arteries, lined with green open spaces, are dot- ted with monumental sculptures and remnants of 19th-century co- lonial architecture. Visits without ap- pointment on Wednesdays at 2 pm. Monday to Friday, by ap- pointment only. Condi- tions of visit: Can be visited on Tuesday and Thurs- day mornings. Guided tours in French. Tour of the chocolate fac- tory, followed by tasting.
Linking West and North and opening onto the Cirque de Mafate, the area conceals a wealth of natural and historical treasures. Some majestic discoveries in store… to riddles, anagrams and questions. At every stop, a warm welcome and product- tasting. Meet staff of La Possession Tou- rist Office in the square. Distribution of envelopes to each team. Set off by car to search for the answers to the riddles. Return to the picnic site to go through the answers. Picnic lunch in the grounds of the estate, with traditional entertain- ment by the pool.
The town conserves some fascinating remnants of its rich past. But its exceptional natural setting is also capable of seducing.
Every single kind of water activity except canyoning can also be practised here. Sale of Escales discovery packages: By arrangement only, for groups of at least 20 people. All are laid to rest here, either as the result of a whim of life, the passing years or some wrongdoing. Like the early inhabitants of the island, Fon- taine, Damour, Nativel and Hoarau, who are buried here, along with the famous writer Leconte de Lisle, who succeeded Victor Hugo to the French Academy.
With its stalls beside the sea, you will be steeped in the Creole atmosphere, full of extraordinary local flavours and smells. As you stroll round, you will have the chance to taste Creole specialities, such as bouchons, samoussas, sarcives and bonbons piments. And there are little snack bars if you fancy trying some of the local specialities for lunch: The wonders of this char- ming, typical, highly colourful market await you!
Days and times of opening: Friday, 6 am to 7 pm, and Saturday, 6 am to 1 pm. Tour of the farm, meeting the animals and learning about agricultural activities. In them, fish groupers, barracudas, jacks, stone- fish, clownfish, seahorses, sharks , together with corals, lobsters and more, can be viewed in a magical set- ting that is both fun and educational.
The aquarium is open Tuesday to Sunday, 10 am to 6 pm. The ticket office closes at 5. Visits last approximately 1 hour. A delightful walk in a cool, fragrant para- dise. Guidebooks in French, English or German are avai- lable to visitors. Drawing classes and herbal workshops are offered: Find out exactly how the essential oils are extracted from geraniums, vetivers and cryptomerias, using a traditional still, accompanied by Isabelle and Jean-Jacques.
The tour includes tas- tings of geranium cordial, geranium honey, geranium tea and, of course, geranium rum. Free entry on the first Sunday of every month. All these living organisms contribute to maintaining the equili- brium of this complex ecosystem. However, for decades, the reef has suffered the impact of the develop- ment of human activities.
The aim of this marine trail is to raise awareness among the public and school children of this degrada- tion, so that eco-friendly attitudes are adopted. Although the three coastal lakes to which it owes its name have since disappeared, it still has some grandiose landscapes, like the Grande Ravine, where white-tailed tropicbirds pailles-en-queue wheel, and its beautiful high-altitude forests.
Built in the 19th century, it twists and turns, level with the clouds, from one ravine to the next. Both elegant and simple, the town exudes irresistible Creole charm. Sale of tourism products Leu Pak. The church of Notre-Dame de la Salette is the site of an annual pilgrimage. As for the brightly coloured Tamil temples and chapels, in season, they are the set- ting for impressive firewalking rituals.
A trail leads up to these ingenious natural free- zers! La Grande Ravine metres deep, this impressive gash in the mountain is rich in plant and bird life. On either side, the remains of an old sugar mill can still be seen. Arrival at the Batterie des Sans-Culottes. Presentation of the town from the viewpoint.
Stroll around the harbour, its importance to the evolution of the town. Visit of Sainte-Ruffine church and its famous relic. It presents the history of the settlement of the island, from the coffee period to the sugar boom. A tour of the museum reveals the secrets of sugar and rum production, taking visitors on a journey through a fragrant world of spices and essences. General tours for groups of more than eight people, by prior arrangement. The treatment centre looks after turtles that are victims of pollu- tion or accidental fishing.
Sixty turtles can be seen swimming around in open- air pools. Ticket office closes at 5 pm. From history to natural his- tory… Four guided tours per day: Plantes Lontan Traditional Plants collection. Exhibitions — Souvenir shop — Fast- food restaurant — Seminar room — Reception area. Open Tuesday to Sunday, 9 am to 5 pm. Booking required for groups of nine people and over. Plants sold on site and by mail order. Dispatched to anywhere in the world. Visits by appointment only.
Guided tours of the museum are available. Open Tuesday to Sunday, 9 am to 12 noon and 1. Walk led by a qualified mountain guide. Shell and mother-of-pearl jewellery. Sale of Saint-Leu salt: Retail sale of salt. Jewellery made of shell, mother-of-pearl, horn, etc. On the edge of the forest, it is the perfect setting for a break, a picnic or a walk, amid natu- ral scenery and enchanting scents.
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A tour of four gardens in two hours: Guided tours daily at 9 am and 2 pm, except Monday. It is an opportunity to retrace the steps of the marrons to one of their per- manent settlements. Walk led by a qua- lified mountain guide. Discovery trail La boucle des tamarins The Tamarin Loop This walk, accessible to all walkers, forms a pleasant loop through a tamarin forest, with views of the village of Les Makes.
The route follows several different paths, taking in ravines and herbaceous vegeta- tion of grasses and mosses. Throughout the walk, you will be able to enjoy this area of pure tamarin forest, right in the heart of the highland forest. All in a warm, friendly setting, with an emphasis on contact with local people. The quick lime was sold to the sugar mills to lime the sugar, and the slaked lime was used in house-building. The owner died in , and the kiln stopped operating shortly afterwards.
The church is T-shaped and the nave is flanked by two aisles. The statue of Saint Dominic, the patron saint of the church, looks impo- singly down from the rooftop. With the closure of the Le Port — Saint-Pierre line in , the station fell into disuse. The farm failed to prosper because of thefts and the fact that the oysters did not sell well. Water park For contact details, see p.
Crocodile-feeding on Wednesdays and Sundays at 4 pm. A forest criss-crossed by wide paths, in the generous shade of casuarinas, acacias and eu- calyptus. Highland villages that offer a warm welcome. In addition, its early settlement means it has many historic sites that are a tes- tament to a rich past. Domaine de Maison-Rouge This historic 18th-century coffee estate has remained intact since its beginnings.
Open Tues- day to Friday, 8 am to 12 noon and 2 pm to 5 pm. Saturday, 2 pm to 5. The first weekend of each month: Exhibition of pain- tings, sculptures and traditional musical instruments. Ilet Alcide On the road to Cilaos, this picnic site appeals for its spacious, natural setting. Starry Night Les Makes is a Creole village where loo- king up at the sky makes for a pleasant pastime, in a place devoted to astrono- mical observation.
Open seven days a week, except Saturday and Sunday afternoons and public-holiday afternoons: During the sugar-cane harvest, from July to December, visit the sticky-sweet world of the Sucrerie du Gol sugar mill, to find out all about the process of turning cane into sugar. Open Tuesday to Saturday during the day. Evening tours can be arranged. Here, more than anywhere else, the houses, neat and delightful, rival in appeal that of the luxuriant, omnipresent landscape. Here, as elsewhere, man ex- ploits nature and his own resourcefulness to produce the finest of traditional crafts.
Here, like nowhere else, the mountain of Dimitile rises majestically before the eyes and is engrained in the memories of the local people. Monday to Saturday, 8 am to 12 noon and 1. Closed on Sundays and public holidays. Alexandre, a guide at Entre-Deux Tourist Office, opens the doors of his kitchen to all those wishing to discover or redisco- ver the genuine taste of coffee made in a tin coffee pot!
Here in Entre-Deux, once coffee-growing country, you will have the chance to taste Bourbon Pointu coffee, roasted before your very eyes over a log fire! Bookings through the Tourist Office Of- fice de Tourisme. Dimension culinaire Culinary Dimension Discover the flavours of yesteryear and baking over a wood fire, at a site which in bygone days was used by inhabitants of the village: Full-day activity minimum 15 people , by prior arrangement only.
Stone-carvers fashion pestles, essential to the preparation of the spicy rougail which accompanies the Creole dish cari. There are also jams, honeys, chutneys and cakes to be tasted in this land of plenty. List of artisans available from the Tourist Office Office de Tourisme. Work with hemp and screwpine. Guided tours possible, with a heritage guide. The site has an authentic old yard with a kitchen garden, and an ornamental garden with a surprise in store, which attracts unique plant and animal life. Highland aquatic plants and animals will delight children, fa- milies and anyone wishing to take it easy by the shade of local fruit trees.
Its streets abound in history and culture. The town is also the site of the modern international airport of Pierrefonds, so that Saint-Pierre is not only the gateway to the South, but also to the neighbouring islands. Free of charge - Price for tours with lunch: It has the largest prayer room on the is- land. A perfectly pro- portioned house which, in the past, symbolised the economic might of the sugar-producing South. An original way to discover the seafront cemetery. A look at the history of the town and the wealthy fa- milies who made their mark on it and, above all, an introduction to neoclassi- cal architecture.
A journey to the heart of rural life. Visit a private temple in La Ligne Paradis. Learn the basics of Indian coo- kery and enjoy a traditional meal. Learn the basics of Creole cookery and enjoy a traditional meal on the site. Open daily, except Monday, from 9 am to 12 noon and 1. The town, now largely residential, has a warm, tranquil personality. Its easy paths lend themselves to family walks.
Phone in advance to visit the atelier. Guided tours by prior ar- rangement. Tours of the atelier by arrangement. Discover a resource centre concerned with bees, honey and beehives. Open Wednesday to Sunday, including public holidays, from 9. Each village in the commune cultivates its own clear personality, forged by the luxuriant landscape of the highlands or the ocean exuberance of an untamed coastline. Saturday, 10 am to 5 pm. With its natural sea pool embedded in the basalt, the ruins of its landing stage and lime kiln, and its majestic cliffs, this site is more than that: These hamlets full of character warrant the detour.
Visiting periods to see honey extraction and jarring: Outside these pe- riods, visitors can watch the honey being jarred. Open all day Monday to Thursday, 7 am to 3 pm, and Friday, 7 am to 2 pm. Free tours by prior ar- rangement. Find out all about its production here at the Mai- son du Curcuma, together with that of other flavoursome products, such as ginger and tangor a hybrid of the tan- gerine and sweet orange. Open Monday to Sunday, 9 am to 12 noon and 1. Visitors can enjoy a tour of the coffee plantation and a Creole picnic.
Guided tours by prior arrangement. Children under 12 years: Tours of the showroom by arrangement. Creole landscapes using recycled materials, scenes of daily life.
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